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Keywords = Chemistry

  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(2), 82-89. http://doi.org/10.31586/AnalyticalChemistry.0302.04
    171 Views 81 Downloads PDF Full-text (781.710 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    In this research, a new nano graphene oxide based solid phase extraction followed by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction was applied as simple, rapid and sensitive determination of trace amounts of Propranolol(PRO) in urine samples with HPLC-UVD. Several factors influencing the extraction of PRO, such as pH, adsorbent amounts, extraction time, organic
    [...] Read more.
    In this research, a new nano graphene oxide based solid phase extraction followed by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction was applied as simple, rapid and sensitive determination of trace amounts of Propranolol(PRO) in urine samples with HPLC-UVD. Several factors influencing the extraction of PRO, such as pH, adsorbent amounts, extraction time, organic solvent type and the composition of solvent and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under optimum condition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the proposed method were 2ng/mL?1 and 6.6ng/mL, respectively. Good linear behaviour over the investigated concentration ranges (2-2000ng/mL-1) and good correlation coefficient of 0.9901(r2) were obtained. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) based on three determinations at 2, 20, 200ng/ml-1 levels of PRO was less than 9.7 %. The findings of the present study may provide clinical and diagnostic laboratories.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 1 of 6

    References
    [1]
    C.Jantarat, N.Tangthong, S.Songkro,G.P. Martin, R.Suedee, S-Propranolol imprinted polymer nanoparticle-on-microsphere composite porous cellulose membrane for the enantioselectively controlled delivery of racemic propranolol, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 349 (2008) 212?225.
    [2]
    G.G. Oliveira, D.C. Azzi, F.C. Vicentini, E.R. Sartori, O.F. Filho, Voltammetric determination of verapamil and propranolol using a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes within a poly (allylamine hydrochloride) film, J. Electroanal. Chem. 708 (2013) 73?79.
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    J. Zhanga, L. Dinga, A. Wenb, F. Wua, L. Suna, L. Yang, An HPLC?ESI?MS method for the determination of propranolol in human plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic studies, Asian J. Pharm. Sci. 4 (2009) 169?177.
    [4]
    T. Alizadeh, L. Allahyari, Highly-selective determination of carcinogenic derivative of propranolol by using a carbon paste electrode incorporated with nano-sized propranolol-imprinted polymer, Electrochim. Acta 111 (2013) 663?673.
    [5]
    K. Scida, P.W. Stege, G. Haby, G.A. Messina, C.D. Garc?a, Recent applications of carbon-based nanomaterials in analytical chemistry: critical review, Anal.Chim. Acta 691 (2011) 6?7.
    [6]
    M. Valc?rcel, S. C?rdenas, B.M. Simonet, Y. Moliner-Mart?nez, R. Lucena,Carbon nanostructures as sorbent materials in analytical processes, TrAC,Trends Anal. Chem. 27 (2008) 34?43.
    [7]
    G.Z. Kyzas, A.Koltsakidou, S.G. Nanaki, D.N. Bikiaris, D.A. Lambropoulou ,Removal of beta-blockers from aqueous media by adsorption onto graphene oxide, Science of the Total Environment 537 (2015) 411 ?420.
    [8]
    B.H. Fumes, M.R. Silva, F.N. Andrade, C.E.D. Nazario, F.M. Lanc? as, Recent advances and future trends in new materials for sample preparation, TrAC,Trends Anal. Chem. 71 (2015) 9?25.
    [9]
    Q. Liu, J. Shi, G. Jiang, Application of graphene in analytical sample preparation, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 37 (2012) 1?11.
    [10]
    G.Liu, W.Jiang, Y.Wang, S. Zhong, D. Sun, J. Liu, One-pot synthesis of Ag@Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composite with excellent electromagnetic absorption properties. Ceram. Int. 41(2015) 4982 ?4988.
    [11]
    A.A. Salem, I.A. Wasfi, S.S. Al-Nassibi, Trace determination of -blockers and 2-agonists in distilled and waste-waters using liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry and solid-phase extraction, J. Chromatogr. B 908 (2012) 27?38.
    [12]
    M. Caban, P. Stepnowski, M. Kwiatkowski, N. Migowska, J. Kumirska, Determination of -blockers and -agonists using gas chromatography and gas chromatography?mass spectrometry?a comparative study of the derivatization step, J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 8110?8122
    [13]
    S. Zorita, P. Hallgren, L. Mathiasson, Steroid hormone determination in water using an environmentally friendly membrane based extraction technique, J.Chromatogr. A 1192 (2008) 1?8.
    [14]
    B. Huang, X.J. Pan, X. Wan, J.L. Liu, S.M. Zhao, P. Hu, F.R. Li, Simultaneous determination of steroid endocrine disrupting chemicals in water by solid phase extraction-derivatization-gas chromatographic?mass spectrometry, Chin. J. Anal. Chem. 39 (2011) 449?454.
    [15]
    Y. Nie, Z. Qiang, H. Zhang, C. Adams, Determination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the liquid and solid phases of activated sludge by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography?mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A 1216 (2009)7071?7080.
    [16]
    W. Liu, Z. Yan, X. Huang, J. Chen, M. Lu, L. Zhang, G. Chen, Simultaneous determination of blockers and agonists by on-fiber derivatization in self-made solid-phase microextraction coating fiber, Talanta 132 (2015) 915?921.
    [17]
    P.C.F. Lima Gomes, B.B. Barnes, ?.J. Santos-Neto, F.M. Lancas, N.H. Snow, Determination of steroids, caffeine and methylparaben in water using solid phase microextraction-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography?time of flight mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr. A 1299 (2013) 126?130.
    [18]
    L. Qiu, W. Liu, M. Huang, L. Zhang, Preparation and application of solid-phase microextraction fiber based on molecularly imprinted polymer for determination of anabolic steroids in complicated samples, J. Chromatogr. A 1217 (2010) 7461?7470.
    [19]
    K. Saito, K. Yagi, A. Ishizaki, H. Kataoka, Determination of anabolic steroids in human urine by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography?mass spectrometry, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal 52 (2010)727?733.
    [20]
    L. Ciofi, D. Fibbi, U. Chiuminatto, E. Coppini, L. Checchini, M. del Bubba, Fully-automated on-line solid phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometric analysis at sub-ng/L levels of selected estrogens in surface water and wastewater, J. Chromatogr. A 1283 (2013) 53?61.
    [21]
    F. Guo, Q. Liu, G. Qu, S. Song, J. Sun, J. Shi, G. Jiang, Simultaneous determination of five estrogens and four androgens in water samples by online solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography?tandem mass spectrometry, J. Chromatogr.A 1281 (2013) 9?18.
    [22]
    E. Pujos, C. Cren-Oliv?, O. Paisse, M.M. Flament-Waton, M.F.Grenier-Loustalot, Comparison of the analysis of -blockers by different techniques, J. Chromatogr. B 877 (2009) 4007?4014.
    [23]
    M. Rezaee, Y. Assadi, M.R. Milani Hosseini, E. Aghaee, F. Ahmadi, S. Berijani, Determination of organic compounds in water using dispersive liquid?liquid microextraction, J. Chromatogr. A 1116 (2006) 1?9.
    [24]
    L. Xu, X. Qi, X. Li, Y. Bai, H. Liu, Recent advances in applications of nano materials for sample preparation, Talanta 146 (2016) 714?726.
    [25]
    K. Scida, P.W. Stege, G. Haby, G.A. Messina, C.D. Garc?a, Recent applications of carbon-based nano materials in analytical chemistry: critical review, Anal.Chim. Acta 691 (2011) 6?17.
    [26]
    M. Valc?rcel, S. C?rdenas, B.M. Simonet, Y. Moliner-Mart?nez, R. Lucena, Carbon nanostructures as sorbent materials in analytical processes, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 27 (2008) 34?43.
    [27]
    B.H. Fumes, M.R. Silva, F.N. Andrade, C.E.D. Nazario, F.M. Lanc? as, Recent advances and future trends in new materials for sample preparation, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 71 (2015) 9?25.
    [28]
    Q. Liu, J. Shi, G. Jiang, Application of graphene in analytical sample preparation, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. 37 (2012) 1?11.
    [29]
    M. Cruz-Vera, R. Lucena, S. C?rdenas, M. Valc?rcel, Sorptive microextraction for liquid chromatographic determination of drugs in urine, TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem., 28 (2009) 1164-1173.
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2014, 1(1), 1-11. http://doi.org/10.31586/Agrochemistry.0101.01
    9 Views 256 Downloads 3 Citations PDF Full-text (461.204 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    We present the results of a comprehensive long-term experiment on intensive cultivation of wheat and tomato plants to initially abiogenous mineral substrate. The experiment simulates the primary processes of soil formation. For the first time is established dynamic synergistic and antagonistic interrelations between the chemical elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg,
    [...] Read more.
    We present the results of a comprehensive long-term experiment on intensive cultivation of wheat and tomato plants to initially abiogenous mineral substrate. The experiment simulates the primary processes of soil formation. For the first time is established dynamic synergistic and antagonistic interrelations between the chemical elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, P, S, Cl, Na, Mn, Zn) in various plant tissues (roots, fruits, grain, stems, leaves) under condition of primary soil formation. We have identified the dynamics of accumulation and differentiation of collective state of the chemical elements in different plant tissues by the methods of information theory.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 2 of 6

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    Mukhomorov V.K. and Anikina L.M. (2011). Dynamics of chemical elements in plants. Primary soil formation. Lambert Academic Publisher. Saarbr?cken. Germany. 2012 (in Russian). 265 p.
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    Ermakov E.I. and Mukhomorov V.K. (2001). Evolution of diversity measures as a reflection of the process of primary soil formation in a model soil-plant system. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics. 379, 297-301.
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    Ermakov E.I. and Anikina L.M. (2007). Formation of organic compounds and their role in the transformation of mineral rooting medium in a controlled agroecosystem. Russian Agricultural Sciences. ? 6, 30-32.
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    Ermakov E.I. and Mukhomorov V.K. (2009). Productional process of plants and the diversity of interactions of edaphic factors in a controlled agroecosystem. In: Ermakov E.I. Selected works. Eds. Yakushev V.P., Panova G.G., Stepanova O.A. St.-Petersburg, pp.48-54.
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    Mukhomorov V.K. and Anikina L.M. (2009). Information streams and plant productivity. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 5, 387-392.
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    Ermakov E.I. and Medvedeva I.V. (1985). In: Physiological patterns of ontogeny and plant productivity. Leningrad. pp. 155- 185.
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2014, 1(1), 38-48. http://doi.org/10.31586/Biochemistry.0101.06
    18 Views 535 Downloads 1 Citations PDF Full-text (962.717 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    The biological activity of chemical compounds is analyzed using electronic and information factors. We found a linear interrelation between the electronic and information factors of molecules. Moreover, these molecular factors are calculated from different principles. Electronic factor is determined by the quantum-mechanical method from the molecular pseudopotential, whereas the information
    [...] Read more.
    The biological activity of chemical compounds is analyzed using electronic and information factors. We found a linear interrelation between the electronic and information factors of molecules. Moreover, these molecular factors are calculated from different principles. Electronic factor is determined by the quantum-mechanical method from the molecular pseudopotential, whereas the information factor is determined by using the information function. It is shown that these factors are separated off statistically significant bioactive chemical compounds of inactive chemicals. To determine these factors is sufficient to know only the chemical formula of molecules. We analyzed the chemical compounds for toxicity, antiradiation activity, carcinogenicity, antifungal activities. To identify biologically active chemical compounds we used the statistical conjugation method of qualitative attributes.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 6 of 8

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2015, 2(3), 104-109. http://doi.org/10.31586/Chemistry.0203.04
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    Abstract
    Theoretical studies for reaction mechanism of the gas phase elimination of 2-petnanone were carried out at B3LYP/6-31+g(d) level of theory. The mechanism for elemination is Norrish type II. The elimination reaction proceeds via a six-membered cyclic transition state with the formation of ethelene and propen-2-ol (acetone enol), which rearranges to
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    Theoretical studies for reaction mechanism of the gas phase elimination of 2-petnanone were carried out at B3LYP/6-31+g(d) level of theory. The mechanism for elemination is Norrish type II. The elimination reaction proceeds via a six-membered cyclic transition state with the formation of ethelene and propen-2-ol (acetone enol), which rearranges to the ketone. The calculated kinetic and thermodynamic parameters are in reasonable agreement with the reported experimental values. Analysis of the progress along the reaction coordinate, in terms of geometrical parameters suggest these reactions are dominated by the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the γ- carbon by the carbonyl oxygen to give the diradical, and together with an important cleavage of C?-C? bond in the transition state through concerted reaction mechanism.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 3 of 3

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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(3), 124-132. http://doi.org/10.31586/Biochemistry.0303.04
    205 Views 163 Downloads PDF Full-text (921.556 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    The bone health is an important part of healthy-life and longevity in current situation due to huge toxins and contaminants in the environment and food chain. Considering the importance of bone health in the modern era, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the Consciousness Energy
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    The bone health is an important part of healthy-life and longevity in current situation due to huge toxins and contaminants in the environment and food chain. Considering the importance of bone health in the modern era, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect?) Treatment on Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) in which the human bone osteosarcoma cells - MG-63 (ATCC? CRL-1427?) was grown for the assessment of bone cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The study parameters were assessed using cell viability by MTT assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and collagen synthesis on bone health using ELISA-based assay. The cell viability was significantly increased by 24% in the Biofield Energy Treated group supplemented with 10% charcoal-dextran with fetal bovine serum (CD-FBS) (G3) compared to the untreated cells group (G1). The level of ALP was significantly increased by 72% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. Additionally, the level of collagen synthesis was significantly (p?0.001) increased by 19% in the G3 group compared to the G1 group. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM has the potential for bone mineralization and bone cells growth as evident via increased levels of collagen and ALP. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect?) Treatment could be useful as a bone health promoter for various bone-related disorders like low bone density, osteogenesis imperfecta, and osteoporosis, etc.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(4), 151-160. http://doi.org/10.31586/Biochemistry.0304.02
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    Abstract
    The study investigated the antiplasmodial potency of Justicia carnea in plasmodium infected mice. The aqueous leaf extract of Justicia carnea was subjected to phytochemical screening using GC-FID. The suppressive, prophylactic and curative activity of the studied plant was accessed after oral administration of standard drugs (5mgkg-1 choroquine and 4mgkg-1 artesunate)
    [...] Read more.
    The study investigated the antiplasmodial potency of Justicia carnea in plasmodium infected mice. The aqueous leaf extract of Justicia carnea was subjected to phytochemical screening using GC-FID. The suppressive, prophylactic and curative activity of the studied plant was accessed after oral administration of standard drugs (5mgkg-1 choroquine and 4mgkg-1 artesunate) and 400-800mgkg-1 of the extract. The effect of the aqueous leaf extract of the studied plant was also explored in the activities of liver enzymes, oxidative stress markers and hematological indices of plasmodium infected mice using spectrophotomertic methods and a hematology auto analyzer (BC 5300 Mindray England) respectively. The aqueous leaf extract of Justicia carnea showed considerable dose dependent antiplasmodial activity in the suppressive, prophylactic and curative test conducted. The suppressive activity of (92%) of the aqueous leaf extract of the studied plant at 800mgkg-1 was comparable to the standard drugs used while the mean survival time of plasmodium infected mice at 800mgkg-1 was beyond the mean survival time of the infected untreated group. The aqueous leaf extract of the studied plant also exhibited significant improvements in the activities of liver enzymes, oxidative stress markers and some hematological parameters at 800mgkg-1 of the extract when compared with the infected and untreated group. The results of the study exhibited the antiplasmodial activity of the studied plant, nonetheless, the crude extracts of the studied plant can be further purified for synergistic use with other potent antimalarial drugs to combat and achieve total clearance of plasmodium resistant infections.  Full article
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  • Open Access Review Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(4), 177-182. http://doi.org/10.31586/EnvironmentalChemistry.0304.05
    52 Views 91 Downloads PDF Full-text (721.521 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Nano-sized particles of less than 100 nm in diameter are attracting the scientific community due to their wide range of new applications in various fields including biophysics, material and medical sciences. Nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver have been found to reveal significantly distinct physical, chemical and biological properties
    [...] Read more.
    Nano-sized particles of less than 100 nm in diameter are attracting the scientific community due to their wide range of new applications in various fields including biophysics, material and medical sciences. Nanoparticles of noble metals such as silver have been found to reveal significantly distinct physical, chemical and biological properties from their bulk counterparts. As industrial production of nano-sized particles is increasing day by day, their dissemination in natural environments is also at an increase. This is leading to substantial water and soil pollution. Finding the adverse effects of such nano-sized particles on different faunal species is thus of utmost importance. In the present paper, toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on fish and rat models have been presented so as to have a view about the type of the damage posed by them. This study will not only add to the existing knowledge about the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on faunal species but also help in formulating future pollution controlling programs.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2019, 4(2), 68-79. http://doi.org/10.31586/Chemistry.0402.04
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    Abstract
    The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of methyl cellulose (MC) polysaccharide by hexacholroiridate (IV) in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mole dm-3 has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The experimental results showed first-order dependence in [IrCl6]2- and fractional first-order kinetics with respect to the MC concentration. The
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    The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of methyl cellulose (MC) polysaccharide by hexacholroiridate (IV) in aqueous perchlorate solutions at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mole dm-3 has been investigated, spectrophotometrically. The experimental results showed first-order dependence in [IrCl6]2- and fractional first-order kinetics with respect to the MC concentration. The reaction rate was found to increase with decreasing the [H+]. A kinetic evidence for formation of 1:1 intermediate complex was revealed. The reaction kinetics seems to be of considerable complexity where one chloride ion from hexacholoiridate (IV) oxidant may act as a bridging ligand between the oxidant and the substrate within the formed intermediate complex. However the added chloride ions and oxidation products were found to have negligible effects on the reaction rate, the added acrylonitrile indicated the intervention of free-radical mechanism during the oxidation process. The kinetic parameters have been evaluated and a tentative reaction mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed.  Full article
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  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2019, 4(3), 111-120. http://doi.org/10.31586/Chemistry.0403.04
    31 Views 24 Downloads PDF Full-text (1.120 MB) PDF Full-text (1.120 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Abiotic stress especially due heavy metals is one of the major environmental problems that threatens food security and pose greater risks to human health worldwide. In this research, greenhouse hydroponic experiments were carried out to study the morphological and biochemical responses of Sorghum bicolor L.M to different Zinc (Zn) levels.
    [...] Read more.
    Abiotic stress especially due heavy metals is one of the major environmental problems that threatens food security and pose greater risks to human health worldwide. In this research, greenhouse hydroponic experiments were carried out to study the morphological and biochemical responses of Sorghum bicolor L.M to different Zinc (Zn) levels. Two-week-old seedlings transplanted in hydroponic solutions were treated with different doses of Zn in the concentration ranges of 5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L supplied as ZnSO4. 5H2O. After 21 day of culture, the plants were harvested, blotted to dryness and separated into roots and shoots. The root and shoot lengths, dry weights and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters such as proline, Chlorophyll a, b, Carotenoids (pigments) were determined. The results indicate that Zn applications significantly (P<0.05) depressed the lengths of root and shoot, dry weights and pigment contents compared to untreated plants (control). The effects were more pronounced with increased Zn dosage. The accumulation of the metal and proline contents in treated plants however, increase gradually with increasing Zn concentrations (P<0.05). The changes in these parameters had resulted in toxicity symptoms and overall growth retardation especially at elevated concentrations and the estimated critical toxicity thresholds in both solution and tissue concentrations suggest that sorghum bicolor L.M should not be grown beyond Zn concentration of above 3.2 mg/L.  Full article
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    Figure 3 of 4

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