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Keywords = HIV

  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 52-59. http://doi.org/10.31586/Epidemiology.0301.05
    238 Views 90 Downloads 1 Shares PDF Full-text (2.334 MB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected.
    [...] Read more.
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available qualitative immunoassay for the detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen of Mycobacteria in human urine by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in TB patients with the AFB and GeneXpert in individuals with presumptive tuberculosis cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study that consecutively enrolled 53 eligible TB adults? patients attending TB Centre, Mangu, Plateau State from February to March 2017. We applied the LAM test on urine collected as a spot and early morning sample. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed for a microbiological TB reference standard based on Gene Xpert MTB/RIF results and for a composite reference standard including clinical data. Performance of sputum smear microscopy (AFB) was included for comparison. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 41.0?17.0 years.) The male proportion was 36(68.0%) and female was 17(32.0%). The patients with HIV-1 Co-infection were 9(23.8%). Of the 53 patients, the positive testing rate of TB using LAM test was 11 (20.8 %). The proportion of those who tested positive using Gene Xpert was 9(17.0%) and AFB was 33(62.2%), and the sensitivity and specificity were 33.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 87.23% and 50.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 83.02%. Conclusion: The study showed great sensitivity of urine LAM test suggesting it could be useful as point of care diagnostic test for presumptive TB cases. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected patients; though GeneXpert had superior sensitivity, but the ease of the LAM test holds operational advantage as a screening method, however larger studies are needed to further determine diagnostic accuracy.  Full article
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    References
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    Steingart KR, Flores LL, Dendukuri N, Schiller I, Laal S, Ramsay A et al. Commercial serological tests for the diagnosis of active pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 2011; 8: e1001062.
    [2]
    Pai NP, Pai M. Point-of-care diagnostics for HIV and tuberculosis: landscape, pipeline, and unmet needs. Discov Med, 2012; 13: 35?45.
    [3]
    Chatterjee D, Khoo KH. Mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan: an extraordinary lipoheteroglycanwith profound physiological effects. Glycobiology, 1998; 8: 113?120.
    [4]
    Tessema TA, Bjune G, Assefa G, Svenson S, Hamasur B, et al. Clinical and radiological features in relation to urinary excretion of lipoarabinomannan in Ethiopian tuberculosis patients. Scand. J Infect Dis. 2002; 34: 167?171
    [5]
    Bjerrum S, Kenu E, Lartey M, Newman JM, Addo KK, Andersen BA et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected adults in Ghana?findings from the DETECT HIV-TB study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15:407
    [6]
    Lawn SD, Wood R. Tuberculosis in antiretroviral treatment services in resource-limited settings: addressing the challenges of screening and diagnosis. J Infect Dis. 2011; 204 Suppl 4:S1159?67.
    [7]
    Colebunders R, Bastian I: A review of the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2000; 4(2):97-107.
    [8]
    Lawn SD, Brooks SV, Kranzer K, Nicol MP, Whitelaw A, Vogt M, et al. Screening for HIV-associated tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance before antiretroviral therapy using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay: a prospective study. PLoS Med. 2011; 8(7):e1001067
    [9]
    Wallis RS, Kim P, Cole S, Hanna D, Andrade BB, Maeurer M, et al. Tuberculosis biomarkers discovery: developments, needs, and challenges. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013; 13(4):362?72.
    [10]
    Boehme C, Molokova E, Minja F, Geis S, Loscher T, Maboko L.et al. Detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan with an antigen-capture ELISA in unprocessed urine of Tanzanian patients with suspected tuberculosis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005; 99(12):893-900
    [11]
    Alere. Alere Determine TB LAM Ag rapid test product listing. 2011. www.alerehiv.com/hiv-comorbidities/features
    [12]
    Peter JG, Theron G, van Zyl-Smit R, Haripersad A, Mottay L, Kraus S et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a urine LAM strip-test for TB detection in HIV-infected hospitalized patients. Eur Respir J. 2012; 5:1211-20.
    [13]
    Shrestha D, Bhattacharya SK, Lekhak B, Kumarc BCR. Evaluation of different staining techniques for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. J Nepal Health Res. 2005; 23 (2): 111-13.
    [14]
    Vasanthakumari R, Jagannath K, Rajasekaran S. A cold staining method for acid-fast bacilli. Bull World Health Organ. 1986; 64:741?743.
    [15]
    Dowdy DW, Chaisson RE, Moulton LH, Dorman SE. The potential impact of enhanced diagnostic techniques for tuberculosis driven by HIV: a mathematical model. AIDS. 2006;20(5):751?62.
    [16]
    Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Wood R. HIV-associated tuberculosis: relationship between disease severity and the sensitivity of new sputum-based and urine-based diagnostic assays. BMC Med. 2013;11:231.
    [17]
    Nakiyingi L, Moodley VM, Manabe YC, Nicol MP, Holshouser M, Armstrong DT, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014.
    [18]
    Peter JG, Theron G, Dheda K. Can point-of-care urine LAM strip testing for tuberculosis add value to clinical decision making in hospitalized HIV-infected persons? PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54875
    [19]
    Shah M, Ssengooba W, Armstrong D, Nakiyingi L, Holshouser M, Ellner JJ, et al. Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2014; 28(9):1307?14.
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2019, 4(2), 80-87. http://doi.org/10.31586/InfectiousDiseases.0402.05
    54 Views 87 Downloads PDF Full-text (700.008 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Background: Anemia is the most frequent hematologic abnormality of HIV disease and one of the most common manifestations of nutritional deficiency disorders in the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, about 70% of the world’s people living with HIV/AIDS, where the prevalence of anemia is higher than in developed countries. The aim
    [...] Read more.
    Background: Anemia is the most frequent hematologic abnormality of HIV disease and one of the most common manifestations of nutritional deficiency disorders in the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, about 70% of the world’s people living with HIV/AIDS, where the prevalence of anemia is higher than in developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among people living with HIV at Dodoma regional hospital during 2013-2014. Methodology: A retrospective cross-section study conducted among PLWHIV at Dodoma Regional Hospital between 2015 and 2016. A total of 869 PLWHIV were enrolled. Data extraction sheet were used to collect Socio- demographics, immune-hematological data and ARV status from existing patient’s files (CTC 2 card). Double entry of data in Microsoft excel were done and transferred for analyzing using SPSS v.16. Results: Majority of them were females 648(74.6%)and 508(58.2%) were between 19-45years with mean age of 38.84(±14.09). 824(94. 8%) were on ARV; where 640(73.6%) are from urban. The overall prevalence of anaemia among PLHIV was 59.5% of which 56.6% of these were on ARV, and 2.9% were not on ARV. Age, sex and CD4+ counts < 200cell/µl were among factors associated with anemia among PLWHIV. Conclusion: Moderate anaemia was common in the study population. Screening and management of anemia along with the proper use Anti-retroviral therapy may decrease risk of anemia and the effect ARV on red blood cells. Haemoglobin measurements should be taken before initiation of ARV and routinely followed among ARV users.  Full article
    Figures

    Figure 2 of 2

    References
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    Tesfaye Z and Enawgaw B (2014) Prevalence of anemia before and after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV positive patients in Northwest Ethiopia : a retrospective study. 7(1): 1-5.
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    Johannessen A, Naman E, Ngowi BJ, Sandvik L, Matee MI, Aglen HE, Gundersen SG and Bruun JN (2008) Predictors of mortality in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural hospital in Tanzania. 10: 1-10.
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    Alem M, Kena T, Baye N, Ahmed R and Tilahun S (2013) Patients at the Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic at the University of Gondar. 2(3).
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    Ferede G and Wondimeneh Y (2013) Prevalence and related factors of anemia in HAART-naive HIV positive patients at Gondar University Hospital , Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Blood Disorders. BMC Blood Disorders 13(1): 1. Available at: BMC Blood Disorders.
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    Santiago-rodríguez EJ, Mayor AM, Fernández-santos DM, Ruiz-candelaria Y and Hunter-mellado RF (2014) Anemia in a cohort of HIV-infected Hispanics : prevalence , associated factors and impact on one-year mortality. 1-8.
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    Martin C, Poudel-tandukar K and Poudel KC (2014) HIV Symptom Burden and Anemia among HIV-Positive Individuals : Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV ( POLH ) Study in Nepal. 1-16.
    [7]
    Brien MEO, Kupka R, Msamanga GI, Saathoff E, Hunter DJ and Fawzi WW (2005) Anemia Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Immunologic Progression of Disease Among Women With HIV in Tanzania. 40(2): 219-225.
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    Belperio PS and Rhew DC (2004) Prevalence and Outcomes of Anemia in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus : A Systematic Review of the Literature. 27-43.
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    Volberding PA, Levine AM, Dieterich D, Mildvan D, Mitsuyasu R, Saag M and Working HI V (2004) Anemia in HIV Infection : Clinical Impact and Evidence-Based Management Strategies. 94121.
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    Mata-marín JA, Gaytán-martínez JE, Martínez-martínez RE, Arroyo-anduiza CI, Fuentes-allen JL and Casarrubias-ramirez M (2010) Risk factors and correlates for anemia in HIV treatment-naïve infected patients : a cross-sectional analytical study. 3–7.
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    Cunha G, Santis D, Menezes D, Crivelenti F, Branda RA, Zomer R, Muniz DA, Momo G, Lima N De, Amorelli-chacel ME, Tadeu D and Artioli A (2011) International Journal of Infectious Diseases Hematological abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. 15: 808-811.
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    Zhou J, Jaquet A, Bissagnene E, Musick B, Wools-kaloustian K, Maxwell N, Boulle A, Wehbe F, Masys D, Iriondo-perez J, Hemingway-foday J and Law M (2012) Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV- infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa , Asia-Pacific , and central and South America. Journal of the International AIDS Society. BioMed Central Ltd 15(1): 5. Available at: http://www.jiasociety.org/content/15/1/5.
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    Shen Y, Wang Z, Lu H, Wang J, Chen J, Liu L and Zhang R (2013) Prevalence of Anemia among Adults with Newly Diagnosed HIV / AIDS in China. 8(9): 1-6.
    [14]
    Amitis Ramezani, Arezoo Aghakhani, Mohammad Reza Sharif, Mohammad Banifazl, Ali Eslamifar, Ali Akbar Velayati (2008). Anemia Prevalence And Related Factors In HIV-Infected Patients: A Cohort Study. Iranian Journal of Pathology. 3(3), 125-128.
    [15]
    Agarwal D, Chakravarty J, Chaube L, Rai M, Agrawal NR and Sundar S (2010) High incidence of zidovudine induced anaemia in HIV infected patients in eastern India. (October): 386-389.
    [16]
    Omoregie R, Omokaro EU, Palmer O, Ogefere HO and Egbeobauwaye A (2009) Prevalence of anaemia among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. 11(1).
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    Lealem G, Tilehum Y, Zewdineh S, Daniel Y (2013). Anemia and Risk Factors in HAART Naıve and HAART Experienced HIV Positive Persons in South West Ethiopia: A Comparative Study. PLOS ONE. 8:8 | e72202.
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    Johannessen A, Naman E, Gundersen SG and Bruun JN (2011) Antiretroviral treatment reverses HIV-associated anemia in rural Tanzania. BMC Infectious Diseases. BioMed Central Ltd 11(1): 190. Available at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/190.
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    Denue BA, Bello HS and Abja AU (2013) Changes in blood profile of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) -infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART ) in North Eastern Nigeria. 5(8): 284-291.
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    Obirikorang C and Yeboah FA (2009) Blood haemoglobin measurement as a predictive indicator for the progression of HIV / AIDS in resource-limited setting. 7: 1–7.
    [21]
    Curkendall SM, Richardson JT, Emons MF, Fisher AE and Everhard F (2007) Incidence of anaemia among HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy *. 483-490.
    [22]
    Mugisha JO, Shafer LA, Paal L Van Der, Mayanja BN, Eotu H, Hughes P, Whitworth JAG and Grosskurth H (2008) Anaemia in a rural Ugandan HIV cohort : prevalence at enrolment , incidence , diagnosis and associated factors. 13(6): 788–794.
  • Open Access Research Article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2019, 4(3), 99-104. http://doi.org/10.31586/Microbiology.0403.02
    152 Views 115 Downloads PDF Full-text (641.988 KB)  HTML Full-text
    Abstract
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk for Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infections also known as Human Herpes Virus Type 4 (HHV-4) and their related diseases which frequently cause malignancy related diseases resulting to poor treatment and health outcomes. In this study, we determined
    [...] Read more.
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an increased risk for Viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)infections also known as Human Herpes Virus Type 4 (HHV-4) and their related diseases which frequently cause malignancy related diseases resulting to poor treatment and health outcomes. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgM antibodies among HIV patients attending Plateau Specialist Hospital, Jos, Nigeria and to evaluate their association with age, sex as well as other demographic factors. A total of 92 HIV positive patients were enrolled and serum samples were screened for antibodies using the ELISA kit. The prevalence of EBV VCA IgM was 6/92(6.53%), and mean age of 37.48 ±1.01 years. This study has contributed to baseline data, and suggest the need for larger studies and importance of screening and treatment of EBV among HIV patients.  Full article
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    Kolawole OE, Kola OJ, Elukunbi AH. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus IgM in HIV infected individuals in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. British Journal of Virology, 2017; 3(6): 177-182.
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