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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 52-59. 10.31586/Epidemiology.0301.05
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    Abstract
    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected.
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    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a public health challenge in both developed and developing countries. Early diagnosis is essential in preventing the further spread of the disease, but the control programs are currently facing a number of constraints and fewer than 25% of all tuberculosis cases especially childhood cases are detected. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available qualitative immunoassay for the detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen of Mycobacteria in human urine by comparing its sensitivity and specificity in TB patients with the AFB and GeneXpert in individuals with presumptive tuberculosis cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study that consecutively enrolled 53 eligible TB adults? patients attending TB Centre, Mangu, Plateau State from February to March 2017. We applied the LAM test on urine collected as a spot and early morning sample. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed for a microbiological TB reference standard based on Gene Xpert MTB/RIF results and for a composite reference standard including clinical data. Performance of sputum smear microscopy (AFB) was included for comparison. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 41.0?17.0 years.) The male proportion was 36(68.0%) and female was 17(32.0%). The patients with HIV-1 Co-infection were 9(23.8%). Of the 53 patients, the positive testing rate of TB using LAM test was 11 (20.8 %). The proportion of those who tested positive using Gene Xpert was 9(17.0%) and AFB was 33(62.2%), and the sensitivity and specificity were 33.3% and 93.2%, respectively. Negative and positive predictive values were 87.23% and 50.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 83.02%. Conclusion: The study showed great sensitivity of urine LAM test suggesting it could be useful as point of care diagnostic test for presumptive TB cases. Its high negative predictive value suggests a role in screening out uninfected patients; though GeneXpert had superior sensitivity, but the ease of the LAM test holds operational advantage as a screening method, however larger studies are needed to further determine diagnostic accuracy.Full article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 33-51. 10.31586/Geosciences.0301.05
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    Abstract
    The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations
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    The magnetotelluric method has been used in this work to compare the nature of the sedimentary-metamorphic contacts of the Douala and Kribi-Campo sub-basins in Cameroon. The results show that the sedimentary-metamorphic contact zones for the two sub-basins, marked by a subsidence of the low resistivity materials on the sedimentary formations and uplift of the high resistivity materials characterized by intrusive bodies of higher values of resistivity on the metamorphic formations, are structurally similar,. However, the very low values of resistivity of rocks in the Douala sub-basin is suggestive of high porosity, permeability and high level of saline ions dissociation leading to high conductivity. These rocks should be of unconsolidated sediments for the sedimentary formation and gneiss for the metamorphic formation. On the contrary, the very high values of resistivity for rocks in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin indicate the absence of free mobile electrons and ions and low porosity, permeability and non-conductivity. The sedimentary formation of this sub-basin should be composed of limestone and conglomerates rocks with some gneissic and unconsolidated granitic materials. The rocks in the metamorphic formation should be completely granitic in nature. The shallow depth of penetration of only 4 km of telluric current in the Douala sub-basin is enough evidence that the tectonic events responsible for the emplacement of this contact zone were limited to the earth crust. On the other hand, in the Kribi-Campo sub-basin the tectonic events should have originated from within the earth mantle as the depth of penetration of telluric current attains 150 km.Full article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 1-9. 10.31586/Biology.0301.01
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    Abstract
    Animals usually use photoperiod as an important environmental cue to time the year. In terms of the winter immunocompetence enhancement hypothesis, animals in the non-tropical zone would actively enhance their immune function to decrease the negative influence of stressors such as low temperature and food shortage in winter. In the
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    Animals usually use photoperiod as an important environmental cue to time the year. In terms of the winter immunocompetence enhancement hypothesis, animals in the non-tropical zone would actively enhance their immune function to decrease the negative influence of stressors such as low temperature and food shortage in winter. In the present study, we mimicked the transition from summer to winter by decreasing photoperiod gradually and examined the variations of immune repsonses in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to test this hypothesis. Twenty two female adult hamsters were randomly divided into the control (12h light: 12h dark, Control, n=11) and the gradually decreasing photoperiod group (Experiment, n=11). In the experiment group, day length was decreased from 12 h: 12 h light-dark cycle to 8 h: 16 h light-dark cycle at the pace of half an hour per week. We found that gradually decreasing photoperiod had no effect on body composition (wet carcass mass, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and total body fat mass) and the masses of the organs detected such as brain, heart, liver and so on in hamsters. Similarly, immunological parameters including immune organs (thymus and spleen), white blood cells and serum bacteria killing capacity indicative of innate immunity were also not influenced by gradually decreasing photoperiod, which did not support the winter immunocompetence enhancement hypothesis. However, gradually decreasing photoperiod increased phytohaemagglutinin response post-24h of PHA challenge, which supported this hypothesis. There was no correlation between cellular, innate immunity and body fat mass, suggesting that body fat was not the reasons of the changes of cellular immunity. In summary, distinct components of immune system respond to gradually decreasing photoperiod differently in Siberian hamsters.Full article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 10-17. 10.31586/Statistics.0301.02
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    Abstract
    When faced with unbalanced data, it is often necessary to estimate the necessary missing values before the application of the analysis of variance technique. Previous studies have shown that different designs require different missing value estimators. With the introduction of some relatively new statistical designs, it has become expedient to
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    When faced with unbalanced data, it is often necessary to estimate the necessary missing values before the application of the analysis of variance technique. Previous studies have shown that different designs require different missing value estimators. With the introduction of some relatively new statistical designs, it has become expedient to derive missing value estimators for such designs. In this study, least squares estimators of missing values in a three-factor nested-factorial design are derived. Properties of the estimators are equally determined. A numerical example is given to show the application of the theoretical results obtained in this paper. Our empirical results establish the appropriateness of the missing value estimation method presented in this study.Full article
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    Trends Journal of Sciences Research 2018, 3(1), 18-32. 10.31586/RemoteSensing.0301.04
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    Abstract
    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt,
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    Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) is unique in East Africa that provides mixed land use activities for the community. The main land uses in LGCA are livestock keeping, wildlife conservation, small scale agriculture, tourism and hunting of wild animals. For decades, Maasai pastoralists coexisted with LGCA but restricted to hunt, set snares and conducting large scale farming. From the year 2000 expansion of agricultural activities have been noted which has escalated the decline of wildlife. I this study the land use/cover change occurred in LGCA for the period of 20 years have been determined and assessed. Supervised classification method was used whereby six classes namely forest, bare land, sand, water, grass land and agriculture were categorized. The results show that from 1996 to 2016 there is a major land cover change on forest, agriculture, bare land, grassland, water bodies and sand by 19.63%, 8.74%, 15.32%, 50.08%, 4.51 %and 1.72%, respectively. Specifically, forest cover is decreasing at 1467.81 ha per year while agriculture is increasing at the rate of 1,467 ha per year. The study concluded that clearing of forest and large scale agriculture has destroyed vegetation cover threatening the existence of wildlife which to a great extent requires immediate measures to counterbalance this effect.Full article
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